When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Definitions A bibliography is a list of sources books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue https: When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. Electronic Sources Web Publications Summary: MLA Modern Language Association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.
Thus, when including the medium of publication for electronic sources, list the medium as Web. It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information, when possible. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or, better, using a program like Adobe Acrobat, to keep your own copies for future reference.
Also, you might use the Bookmark function in your Web browser in order to return to documents more easily. Because Web addresses are not static i. Break URLs only after slashes. The Internet Classics Archive.
Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources If publishing information is unavailable for entries that require publication information such as publisher or sponsor names and publishing dates, MLA requires the use of special abbreviations to indicate that this information is not available.
When an entry requires that you provide a page but no pages are provided in the source as in the case of an online-only scholarly journal or a work that appears in an online-only anthologyuse the abbreviation n. Not every Web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes: Remember that some Print publications have Web publications with slightly different names.
They may, for example, include the additional information or otherwise modified information, like domain names [e. Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers.
Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date. Take note of any page numbers if available. Date you accessed the material.
Citing an Entire Web Site It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later. If a URL is required or you chose to include one, be sure to include the complete address for the site.
Remember to use n. Editor, author, or compiler name if available. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov.
Course or Department Websites Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course or the school catalog designation for the course in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title. Survey of the Literature of England. Purdue U, 20 Apr. A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites.
An Image Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed.
Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, the medium of publication, and the date of access. The Family of Charles IV. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo National del Prado.
Museum of Modern Art, New York. If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, the medium of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.
American Greetings, 22 May Memo styles vary by company, but they all have similar components, according to the University of Minnesota website. In some cases, long memos are acceptable, such as when sending internal reports. Short memos are appropriate when making internal requests or announcements.
If you work in an office and need to write a.
Understanding Different Citation Formats Official Sites More Notes on Chicago Style Footnotes Chicago Style Bibliographies. Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use.
Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free. 10 Universities Offering Free Writing Courses Online. See our list of universities that offer free online writing courses.
Learn about what courses are available and what topics they cover to find. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
Loading. Find Info For.
Find Info For. Academics Why should I write an annotated bibliography? To learn about your topic: Writing an annotated bibliography is excellent preparation for a. MLA Citation Style; Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.