To bring attention to the need for lexical variation in a good essay and to increase range of cause and effect phrases and topic related vocabulary. Aims To bring attention to the need for lexical variation in a good essay. To increase range of cause and effect phrases and topic related vocabulary. To provide a lexical resource for future essay writing.
If the stroke affects brain areas which are important for language, then the language functions can be partially or fully lost. This condition is called aphasia, but it is sometimes reversible at least to some degree with time, treatment and rehabilitation.
Bilinguals, that is, people who speak more than one language, are known to recover from aphasia in a number of different ways. The most common case is when the bilingual patient similarly recovers both languages equally well as in parallel aphasia. The case of selective aphasia made researchers initially believe that each language of a bilingual person Learning english cause and effect be located in a different brain area, given that one language recovers better than the other after the stroke.
However, with the help of brain imaging Learning english cause and effect we now know that this idea is not correct. On the contrary, when a person speaks many languages, they all activate a common network of brain areas.
While the whole picture of how the brain generates multiple languages is still partly unclear, we do know a number of factors that seem to influence to what extent the languages of a bilingual patient will recover after a stroke.
If a person is less proficient in one of the two languages, this language may not recover as good as the more proficient language. This means that the more automatic a skill is, the easier it is to recover it, whereas something that takes effort such as language that one only speaks rarely is harder to recover.
Social factors and emotional involvement are also important if we want to understand which language will recover after a stroke, for instance how often a specific language is used, or what emotions are associated with a specific language.
However, it is still unclear exactly how these factors interplay in predicting the recovery success. One of the current theories on why bilingual aphasics may disproportionately recover one language better than the other suggests that this happens when the stroke damages specific control mechanisms in the brain.
If the mechanisms that control this switch are damaged during the stroke, the aphasic patient may no longer be able to similarly recover both languages as the ability to control the language use has been lost.
In this case the person may appear to have completely lost one of the languages, but the problem is actually one of control.
Recently researchers found that the control mechanisms are more impaired in bilinguals with selective aphasia who recover only one language than in bilinguals with parallel aphasia who recover both languages. Interestingly, when languages recover after stroke, the connections between language and control areas in the brain are re-established.
While this interesting finding supports the theory linking selective aphasia to impaired control mechanisms, it is only one of several theories and researchers are currently trying to better understand what other causes may also underlie the surprising recovery patterns that can be seen in bilingual aphasia.
Brain and Language, 79 2 Understanding the link between bilingual aphasia and language control. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21 6 The underlying mechanism of selective and differential recovery in bilingual aphasia. Department of Experimental psychology, Ghent, Belgium. Italian has a shallow orthography, which means that the spelling of the words represent the sounds of Italian quite well although Sicilian, Sardinian, and Neapolitan Italian speakers may disagreewhile English has a deep orthography, which means that spelling and pronunciation don't match so well.
Italian is consistent for two main reasons. Firstly, the Accademia della Crusca was established in and has spent several centuries since regulating the Italian language; the existence of such an academy has enabled wide-ranging and effective spelling consistency.
Secondly, Standard Italian only has five vowels; a, i, u, e, and o, which makes it much easier to distinguish between them on paper. Other examples of languages with five vowel systems are Spanish and Japanese, both of which also have shallow orthographies.
Japanese is an interesting case; some words are written using the Japanese characters, which accurately represent the sound of the words, but other words are written with adapted Chinese characters, which represent the meaning of the words and don't represent the sound at all. French has a deep orthography, but in one direction; while one sound can be written several different ways, there tends to be one specific way of pronouncing a particular vowel or combination of vowels.
For example, the sound [o] can be written au, eau, or o, as in haut, oiseau, and mot; however, the spelling eau can only be pronounced as [o]. English, meanwhile, has a very deep orthography, and has happily resisted spelling reform for centuries interestingly enough, this is not the case in the USA; Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language introduced a successful modern spelling reform programme… or program.
One obvious reason is the lack of a formal academy for the English language - English speakers are rather laissez-faire certainly laissez-faire enough to use French to describe English speakers' attitudes towards English - but there are several other reasons too.
Formed out of a melting pot of European languages - a dab of Latin and Greek here, a pinch of Celtic and French there, a fair old chunk of German, and a few handfuls of Norse - English has a long and complicated history.
Some spelling irregularities in English reflect the original etymology of the words. The unpronounced b in doubt and debt harks back to their Latin roots, dubitare and debitum, while the pronunciation of ce- as "se-" in centre, certain, and celebrity is due to the influence of French and send and sell are not "cend" and "cell" because they are Germanic in origin.
All languages change over time, but English had a particularly dramatic set of changes to the sound of its vowels in the middle ages known as the Great Vowel Shift.
The early and middle phases of the Great Vowel Shift coincided with the invention of the printing press, which helped to freeze the English spelling system at that point; then, the sounds changed but the spellings didn't, meaning that Modern English spells many words the way they were pronounced years ago.
This means that the Shakespeare's plays were originally pronounced very differently from modern English, but the spelling is almost exactly the same.
Moreover, the challenge of making the sounds of English match the spelling of English is harder because of the sheer number of vowels.
Depending on their dialect, English speakers can have as many as 22 separate vowel sounds, but only the letters a, i, u, e, o, and y to represent them; it's no wonder that so many competing combinations of letters were created.This is a quiz for students of English as a second language.
You can take this quiz and then check your answers right away. English Comp. Cause and Effect Technology. English Comp I; 12pm Cause and Effect Essay Apart from a large upturn of anonymity on the internet, the increased power and presence of the Internet have effected the way people communicate, positively and negatively.
High school and college students are among the most tech-savvy . The first cause of learning another language is to study and know how to speak it so that we can communicate. However, it is important for employment and travel to any country such as Japan and France.
This cause and effect worksheet encourages students to work on reading comprehension, a key skill that takes lots and lots of practice to master. Concept Metaphysics. The nature of cause and effect is a concern of the subject known as metaphysics.. Ontology. A general metaphysical question about cause and effect is what kind of entity can be a cause, and what kind of entity can be an effect..
One viewpoint on this question is that cause and effect are of one and the same kind of entity, with causality an asymmetric relation between them.
Children differ in their learning strategies and developmental patterns. Therefore age “benchmarks (for example, "first words appear around 12 months") only represent a very general average.