In the United States, reporters ought to have the right to protect the identity of confidential sources.
Anti-Federalism Inthe second year of the American Revolutionary Warthe Virginia colonial legislature passed a Declaration of Rights that included the sentence "The freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, and can never be restrained but by despotic Governments.
However, these declarations were generally considered "mere admonitions to state legislatures", rather than enforceable provisions. Other delegates—including future Bill of Rights drafter James Madison —disagreed, arguing that existing state guarantees of civil liberties were sufficient and that any attempt to enumerate individual rights risked the implication that other, unnamed rights were unprotected.
Supporters of the Constitution in states where popular sentiment was against ratification including Virginia, Massachusetts, and New York successfully proposed that their state conventions both ratify the Constitution and call for the addition of a bill of rights.
Constitution was eventually ratified by all thirteen states. The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretext, infringed.
The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments; and the freedom of the press, as one of the great bulwarks of liberty, shall be inviolable. The people shall not be restrained from peaceably assembling and consulting for their common good; nor from applying to the Legislature by petitions, or remonstrances, for redress of their grievances.
Establishment Clause Thomas Jefferson wrote with respect to the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government in an letter to the Danbury Baptists a religious minority concerned about the dominant position of the Congregational church in Connecticut: Adhering to this expression of the supreme will of the nation in behalf of the rights of conscience, I shall see with sincere satisfaction the progress of those sentiments which tend to restore to man all his natural rights, convinced he has no natural right in opposition to his social duties.
United States the Supreme Court used these words to declare that "it may be accepted almost as an authoritative declaration of the scope and effect of the amendment thus secured.
Congress was deprived of all legislative power over mere [religious] opinion, but was left free to reach [only those religious] actions which were in violation of social duties or subversive of good order. In the preamble of this act [. Originally, the First Amendment applied only to the federal government, and some states continued official state religions after ratification.
Massachusettsfor example, was officially Congregational until the s. Board of Educationthe U. Supreme Court incorporated the Establishment Clause i. The "establishment of religion" clause of the First Amendment means at least this: Neither a state nor the Federal Government can set up a church.
Neither can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion to another. That wall must be kept high and impregnable. We could not approve the slightest breach.
Watkinsthe Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution prohibits states and the federal government from requiring any kind of religious test for public office.
Grumet The Court concluded that "government should not prefer one religion to another, or religion to irreligion. Perry McCreary County v. ACLU and Salazar v. Buono  —the Court considered the issue of religious monuments on federal lands without reaching a majority reasoning on the subject.
President Thomas Jefferson wrote in his correspondence of "a wall of separation between church and State". It had been long established in the decisions of the Supreme Court, beginning with Reynolds v.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or legal ph-vs.com term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. In the United States, freedom of speech and expression is strongly protected from government restrictions by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, many state constitutions, and state and federal laws. “Freedom of expression is the matrix, the indispensable condition, of nearly every other form of freedom.”—U.S. Supreme Court Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo in Palko v. ConnecticutFreedom of speech, the press, association, assembly, and petition: This set of guarantees, protected by the First Amendment, comprises what we refer to as freedom of expression.
United States inwhen the Court reviewed the history of the early Republic in deciding the extent of the liberties of Mormons.
Chief Justice Morrison Waitewho consulted the historian George Bancroftalso discussed at some length the Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments by James Madison,  who drafted the First Amendment; Madison used the metaphor of a "great barrier".
Everson laid down the test that establishment existed when aid was given to religion, but that the transportation was justifiable because the benefit to the children was more important.
In the school prayer cases of the early s, Engel v. Vitale and Abington School District v. Schemppaid seemed irrelevant; the Court ruled on the basis that a legitimate action both served a secular purpose and did not primarily assist religion. Tax Commissionthe Court ruled that a legitimate action could not entangle government with religion; in Lemon v.
Kurtzmanthese points were combined into the Lemon testdeclaring that an action was an establishment if: The Lemon test has been criticized by justices and legal scholars, but it remains the predominant means by which the Court enforces the Establishment Clause.
Feltonthe entanglement prong of the Lemon test was demoted to simply being a factor in determining the effect of the challenged statute or practice.
Simmons-Harristhe opinion of the Court considered secular purpose and the absence of primary effect; a concurring opinion saw both cases as having treated entanglement as part of the primary purpose test.“Freedom of expression is the matrix, the indispensable condition, of nearly every other form of freedom.”—U.S.
Supreme Court Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo in Palko v. ConnecticutFreedom of speech, the press, association, assembly, and petition: This set of guarantees, protected by the First Amendment, comprises what we refer to as freedom of expression.
The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the United States. Empowered with the sovereign authority of the people by the framers and the consent of . The Constitution of the United States The Bill of Rights & All Amendments A highly accessible, easy to use online version full text transcript including the Bill of Rights and the rest of the Amendments with both sequential and subject indexes.
The right to think is the beginning of freedom, and speech must be protected from the government because speech is the beginning of thought.  In United States v. The United States of America—also referred to as the United States, the USA, the U.S., America, or (archaically) Columbia–is a federal republic of 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Each of the 50 states has a high level of local autonomy under the system of federalism. The United States was born as a nation with the Declaration of Independence made by the 13 colonies on July 4, These three documents, known collectively as the Charters of Freedom, have secured the rights of the American people for more than two and a quarter centuries and are considered instrumental to the founding and philosophy of the United States.